The Ottoman Empire was one of the most powerful and enduring dynasties in world history.

This Islam-run superpower has ruled vast areas of the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and North Africa for over 600 years.

The chief leader, known as Sultan, received absolute religious and political authority over his people.

While Western Europeans generally considered them a threat, many historians consider the Ottoman Empire to be a source of great stability and security for the conquered Regions, as well as important great innovators in the arts, science, religion, and culture.

Osman I, a leader of the Turkish tribes in Anatolia, founded the Ottoman Empire around 1299.

The term “Ottoman” comes from the name of Osman, which was “Uthman” in Arabic.

The Ottoman Turks established a formal government and expanded their territory under the guidance Osman, Orhan, Murad I, and Bayezid I.

The main stages were the victory of Varna in 1444 over a coalition of Christian forces, the second battle of Kosovo Polje in 1448, which opened domination over the Balkans, and the taking over of Muhammad II in 1453 of Constantinople, which became the capital with Istanbul name. Penetration in Greece followed the conquest of Trabzon, the submission of Moldova, Wallachia, much of Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Crimea, the systematic attack on the positions of Genoa and above all of Venice, whose influence on Greece and the Aegean has swept away, the landing on the Apulian coasts in Otranto.

With Bayazid II (1481-1512), there was the definitive loss of Morea by Venice.

His son Selim I (1512-20) enlarged the conquest work in Asia to the detriment of the Persians and the Arabs.

Between 1513 and 1518, he seized Armenia, Syria, Egypt in succession where he defeated the Mamluks, of the Maghreb coast, where power was delegated to Admiral Khayr al-Din known as Barbarossa, who with his corsair fleets inflicted deadly blows on the trade of Christian Europe.

The apogee of the empire was reached under the long reign of Suleiman I the Magnificent (1520-66).

In 1521, Belgrade was conquered.

In 1522, Rhodes was stolen from the Venetians.

In 1526, after the great victory of Mohacs, Hungary was annexed, with an episode at the gates of Vienna in 1529.

In 1529, Algeria became a Turkish province.

In 1534 after a war with the Persians, Azerbaijan and Iraq were incorporated, while an endemic state of war continued with an alliance with France with Spain and Venice in the Mediterranean and with Austria in the Danubian sector.

An attempt by Emperor Charles V to take Algiers failed sensationally.

In 1564-65, Suleiman laid siege to Malta, of enormous strategic importance, which was saved by the Spaniards.

Upon his death in 1566, Suleiman left the empire in a position of extraordinary power, in a context in which the Ottomans threatened to become the masters of the Mediterranean.

The fall of Cyprus, taken from the Venetians in 1570, led Christian Europe to a decisive confrontation with the ottomans. Pope Pius V called the forces together; a holy league was formed; and on October 7, 1571, a large Hispano-Venetian-pontifical fleet defeated the even more numerous fleet of Selim ii (1566-74) in the battle of Lepanto, which marked a turning point in the history of Europe. The expansive force of the Ottoman Empire was thus, if not contained, blocked at a crucial moment.

The last major offensive episode towards Europe was represented by the conflict with the Habsburg Empire between 1682 and 1686, which saw the siege of Vienna itself in 1683, freed by the Polish king John Sobieski III.

Main Dates Of Turkish History

First millennium BC: Some settlements developed on the Bosporus

VII century BC: The Greeks, with the legendary Byzantine, settle in Lygos, a fishing port on the tip of the menagerie. Thanks to the trade Byzantium develops quickly.

512 BC: The Persians conquer Byzantium, which will then be taken over by an Athenian fleet in 478 BC

343 AC.: Alexander the Great conquers Byzantium.

193-196 AD: The Roman emperor Septimius Severus besieges Byzantium. Razed to the ground, it is rebuilt on a larger scale.

330: Constantine transfers the capital of the Ottoman Empire to Byzantium. The new Rome will be called Constantinople.

476: Following the fall of Rome into the hands of the barbarians, Constantinople becomes the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

527-565: With Justinian, the Byzantine empire lives its moment of maximum splendor.

1204-1261: in 1204, the barons of the Fourth Crusade destroyed the city and many of the masterpieces found there. With the Pope’s blessing, they found the Eastern Roman Empire. The Byzantines will reconquer Constantinople in 1261.

1453: Sultan Mehmet II, who has already conquered all Anatolia, besieges Constantinople, which capitulates on 29 May 1453 and, which became the capital of the Ottoman Empire, is repopulated thanks to the development of trade.

1520-1566: Under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire reaches its apogee.

1616: Construction of the Blue Mosque.

1839-1878: Period of reforms inspired by the West.

1919: Following the deployment of the Ottomans with the Germans during the First World War, the city was occupied by Anglo-French troops. Mustafa Kemal leaves Istanbul and heads for Samsun, from where he organizes popular resistance against the occupiers.

1923: With the ratification of the Lausanne Treaty, which defines the current borders of Turkey, the Turkish Republic is proclaimed, with the capital Ankara. The allies leave Istanbul.

1924: Abolition of the Caliphate

1937: Proclamation of secularism

1938: Death of Ataturk

1945: Transfer to the pluralist system

1960: Army intervention

1963: Association Agreement between Turkey and the EEC

1970: Military coup

1973: Inauguration of the First Bosphorus Bridge between Europe and Asia.

1980: Army intervention following political instability

1982: New Constitution and beginning of political neoliberalism

1985: Construction of the second Bosphorus Bridge

1996: Customs union between Turkey and the EU

1999: Official recognition of Turkey’s candidacy for the EU. Two earthquakes of the seventh degree on the Richter scale shook the area of Istanbul.